SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2021
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
A summary of the significant accounting policies consistently applied in the preparation of the accompanying consolidated financial statements are as follows:
Principles of Consolidation — The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Holding and its wholly owned subsidiary, Services. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Basis of Presentation — The accompanying consolidated financial statements and related notes have been prepared pursuant to the rules and regulations of the United States Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") and in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America ("GAAP").
Use of Estimates — Management is required to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Such estimates include, but are not limited to, allowance for credit losses, useful lives for depreciation of property and equipment, estimates of fair value of property and equipment, estimates related to fair value of reporting units for purposes of assessing goodwill (if any), estimates related to deferred tax assets and liabilities, including any related valuation allowances, and estimates of fair value of stock‑based compensation. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Revenue Recognition — The Company’s services are sold based upon contracts with customers. The Company recognizes revenue when it satisfies a performance obligation by transferring control over a product or service to a customer. The following is a description of the principal activities, aggregated into our one reportable segment—"Pressure Pumping" and "all other" category, from which the Company generates its revenue.
Pressure Pumping — Pressure pumping consists of downhole pumping services, which includes hydraulic fracturing (inclusive of acidizing services) and cementing.
Hydraulic fracturing is a well-stimulation technique intended to optimize hydrocarbon flow paths during the completion phase of shale wellbores. The process involves the injection of water, sand and chemicals under high pressure into shale formations. Our hydraulic fracturing contracts with our customers have one
performance obligation, which is the contracted total stages, satisfied over time. We recognize revenue over time using a progress output, unit-of-work performed method, which is based on the agreed fixed transaction price and actual stages completed. We believe that recognizing revenue based on actual stages completed faithfully depicts how our hydraulic fracturing services are transferred to our customers over time. In addition, certain of our hydraulic fracturing equipment is entitled to daily idle fee charges if a customer were to idle committed hydraulic fracturing equipment. The Company recognizes revenue related to idle fee charges on a daily basis as the performance obligations are met.
Acidizing, which is part of our hydraulic fracturing operating segment, involves a well-stimulation technique where acid or similar chemicals are injected under pressure into formations to form or expand fissures. Our acidizing contracts have one performance obligation, satisfied at a point-in-time, upon completion of the contracted service or sale of acid or chemical when control is transferred to the customer. Jobs for these services are typically short term in nature, with most jobs completed in less than a day. We recognize acidizing revenue at a point-in-time, upon completion of the performance obligation.
Our cementing services use pressure pumping equipment to deliver a slurry of liquid cement that is pumped down a well between the casing and the borehole. Our cementing contracts have one performance obligation, satisfied at a point-in-time, upon completion of the contracted service when control is transferred to the customer. Jobs for these services are typically short term in nature, with most jobs completed in less than a day. We recognize cementing revenue at a point-in-time, upon completion of the performance obligation.
The transaction price for each performance obligation for all our pressure pumping services is fixed per our contracts with our customers.
All Other— All other consists of coiled tubing operations, which are downhole well completion/remedial services. The performance obligation for these services has a fixed transaction price which is satisfied at a point-in-time upon completion of the service when control is transferred to the customer. Accordingly, we recognize revenue at a point-in-time, upon completion of the service and transfer of control to the customer.
Accounts Receivable — Accounts receivables are stated at the amount billed and billable to customers. At December 31, 2021 and 2020 accrued revenue (unbilled receivable) included as part of our accounts receivable was $19.4 million and $8.6 million, respectively. At December 31, 2021, the transaction price allocated to the remaining performance obligation for our partially completed hydraulic fracturing operations was $16.8 million, which is expected to be completed and recognized within one month following the current period balance sheet date, in our pressure pumping reportable segment. At December 31, 2020 the transaction price allocated to the remaining performance obligation for our then partially completed hydraulic fracturing operations was $14.7 million, which was recorded as part of our pressure pumping segment revenue for the year ended December 31, 2021.
As of December 31, 2021, the Company had $0.2 million allowance for credit losses. Our allowance for credit losses is based on the evaluation of both our historic collection experience and economic outlook for the oil and gas industry. We evaluated the historic loss experience on our accounts receivable and also considered separately customers with receivable balances that may be negatively impacted by current or future economic developments and market conditions. While the Company has not experienced significant credit losses in the past and has not yet seen material changes to the payment patterns of its customers, the Company cannot predict with any certainty the degree to which the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, including the potential impact of periodically adjusted borrowing base limits, level of hedged production, or unforeseen well shut-downs may affect the ability of its customers to timely pay receivables when due. Accordingly, in future periods, the Company may revise its estimates of expected credit losses.
The table below shows a summary of allowance for credit losses during the year ended December 31, 2021:
Inventories — Inventories, which consists only of raw materials, are stated at lower of average cost and net realizable value.
Property and Equipment — The Company’s property and equipment are recorded at cost, less accumulated depreciation.
Depreciation — Depreciation of property and equipment is provided on the straight‑line method over the following estimated useful lives:
Upon sale or retirement of property and equipment, including certain major components of our pressure pumping equipment that are replaced, the cost and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the balance sheet and the net amount, less proceeds from disposal, is recognized as a gain or loss in the statement of operations. A significant portion of our loss on disposal of assets relates to replacement of major components like fluid and power ends. The Company recorded a loss on disposal of assets of $64.6 million, $58.1 million and $106.8 million for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Impairment of Long‑Lived Assets — In accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 360, Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long‑Lived Assets, the Company reviews its long‑lived assets to be held and used whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying value of those assets may not be recoverable.
An impairment loss is indicated if the sum of the expected future undiscounted cash flows attributable to the asset group is less than the carrying amount of such asset group. In this circumstance, the Company recognizes an impairment loss for the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset group exceeds the fair value of the asset group. No impairment expense was recorded during the year ended December 31, 2021. Property and equipment impairment loss of $27.5 million and $1.1 million was recorded during the year ended December 31, 2020 relating to our pressure pumping and drilling assets, respectively. Property and equipment impairment loss of $1.2 million and $2.2 million was recorded during the year ended December 31, 2019 relating to our drilling and flowback asset groups, respectively. Our drilling and flowback asset groups are included in the “all other” category in our reportable segment disclosure.
The Company accounts for long‑lived assets to be disposed of at the lower of their carrying amount or fair value, less cost to sell once management has committed to a plan to dispose of the assets.
Goodwill — Goodwill is the excess of the consideration transferred over the fair value of the tangible and identifiable intangible assets and liabilities recognized. Goodwill is not amortized. We perform an annual impairment test of goodwill as of December 31, or more frequently if circumstances indicate that impairment may exist. The determination of impairment is made by comparing the carrying amount of a reporting unit with its fair value, which is generally calculated using a combination of market and income approaches. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds the carrying value, no further testing is performed. If the fair value of the reporting unit is less
than the carrying value, we consider goodwill to be impaired, and the amount of impairment loss is estimated and recorded in the statement of operations.
In 2011, we acquired Technology Stimulation Services, LLC ("TSS") for $24.4 million. The assets acquired from TSS were recorded as $15.0 million of equipment with the excess of the purchase price over fair value of the assets recorded as goodwill of $9.4 million. The acquisition complemented our existing pressure pumping business. The transaction was accounted for using the acquisition method of accounting and, accordingly, assets and liabilities assumed were recorded at their fair values as of the acquisition date. There were no additions to goodwill during the year ended December 31, 2021. In the first quarter of 2020, we performed an interim impairment test and concluded that goodwill was fully impaired. As a result of our interim impairment test during the first quarter of 2020, we recorded goodwill impairment expense of $9.4 million during the year ended December 31, 2020, which fully wrote off our goodwill carrying value. There were no good will impairments during the year ended December 31, 2019.
Intangible Assets — Intangible assets with finite useful lives are amortized on a basis that reflects the pattern in which the economic benefits of the intangible assets are realized, which is generally on a straight‑line basis over the asset’s estimated useful life.
Income Taxes — Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method, which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the consolidated financial statements. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined on the basis of differences between the consolidated financial statements and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.
We recognize deferred tax assets to the extent that we believe these assets are more likely than not to be realized. In making such a determination, we consider all positive and negative evidence, including future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, projected future taxable income, and the results of recent operations. If we determine that we would not be able to fully realize our deferred tax assets in the future, we would record a valuation allowance.
Advertising Expense — All advertising costs are expensed as incurred. For the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, advertising expense was $0.8 million, $0.4 million and $1.2 million, respectively.
Deferred Loan Costs — The Company capitalized certain costs in connection with obtaining its borrowings, including lender, legal, and accounting fees. These costs are being amortized over the term of the related loan using the straight‑line method. Unamortized deferred loan costs associated with loans paid off or refinanced with different lenders are expensed in the period in which such an event occurs. Deferred loan costs are classified as a reduction of long‑term debt or in certain instances as an asset in the consolidated balance sheet. Amortization of deferred loan costs is recorded as interest expense in the statement of operations, and during the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, the amount of expense recorded was $0.5 million, $0.5 million and $0.5 million, respectively.
Stock-Based Compensation — The Company recognizes the cost of stock‑based awards on a straight‑line basis over the requisite service period of the award, which is usually the vesting period under the fair value method. Total compensation cost is measured on the grant date using fair value estimates.
Insurance Financing — The Company annually renews its commercial insurance policies, and may choose to either directly pay the insurance premium or finance a portion of the premium. If the Company finances a portion of the premium, a prepaid insurance asset is recorded and amortized monthly over the relevant period.
Concentration of Credit Risk — The Company’s assets that are potentially subject to concentrations of credit risk are cash and cash equivalents and trade accounts receivable. Cash balances are maintained in financial institutions, which at times exceed federally insured limits. The Company monitors the financial condition of the financial institutions in which accounts are maintained and has not experienced any losses in such accounts. The receivables of the Company are with credible operators in the oil and natural gas industries. The Company performs ongoing evaluations as to the financial condition of its customers with respect to trade receivables.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards Adopted in 2021
In December 2019, the FASB Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") issued ASU No. 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes. ASU 2019-12 removes certain exceptions to the general principles in Topic 740 in Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. ASU 2019-12 is effective for public entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. Effective January 1, 2021, we adopted this guidance and the adoption did not materially affect the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards Not Yet Adopted in 2021
In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform, which provides temporary optional guidance to companies impacted by the transition away from the London Interbank Offered Rate ("LIBOR"). The guidance provides certain expedients and exceptions to applying GAAP in order to lessen the potential accounting burden when contracts, hedging relationships, and other transactions that reference LIBOR as a benchmark rate are modified. This guidance is effective upon issuance and expires on December 31, 2022. The Company is currently assessing the impact of the LIBOR transition and this ASU on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef