Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

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SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
summary of the significant accounting policies consistently applied in the preparation of the accompanying consolidated financial statements are as follows:
Principles of Consolidation — The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Holding and its wholly owned subsidiary, Services. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Basis of Presentation — The accompanying consolidated financial statements and related notes have been prepared pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”).
Use of Estimates — Management is required to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Such estimates include, but are not limited to, allowance for doubtful accounts, depreciation of property and equipment, estimates of fair value of property and equipment, estimates related to fair value of reporting units for purposes of assessing goodwill, estimates related to deferred tax assets and liabilities, including any related valuation allowances, and estimates of fair value of stock‑based compensation. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Revenue Recognition — The Company’s services are sold based upon contracts with customers. The Company recognizes revenue when it satisfies a performance obligation by transferring control over a product or service to a customer. The following is a description of the principal activities, separated by reportable segment and all other, from which the Company generates its revenue.
Pressure Pumping — Pressure pumping consists of downhole pumping services, which includes hydraulic fracturing (inclusive of acidizing services) and cementing.
Hydraulic fracturing is a well-stimulation technique intended to optimize hydrocarbon flow paths during the completion phase of shale wellbores. The process involves the injection of water, sand and chemicals under high pressure into shale formations. Hydraulic fracturing contracts with our customer have one performance obligation, which is the contracted total stages, satisfied over time. We recognize revenue over time using a progress output method, unit-of-work performed method, which is based on the agreed fixed transaction price and actual stages completed. We believe that recognizing revenue based on actual stages completed faithfully depicts how our hydraulic fracturing services are transferred to our customers over time.
Acidizing, which is part of our hydraulic fracturing operating segment, involves a well-stimulation technique where acid is injected under pressure into formations to form or expand fissures. Acidizing provides downhole solutions, and contracts with customers have one performance obligation, which is satisfied at a point-in-time upon completion of the contracted service when control is transferred to the customer. Jobs for these services are typically short term in nature, with most jobs completed in less than a day. We recognize acidizing revenue at a point-in-time, upon completion of the performance obligation.
Our cementing services use pressure pumping equipment to deliver a slurry of liquid cement that is pumped down a well between the casing and the borehole. Cementing involves well bonding solutions, and contracts with customers have one performance obligation, which is satisfied at a point-in-time upon completion of the contracted service when control is transferred to the customer. Jobs for these services are typically short term in nature, with most jobs completed in less than a day. We recognize cementing revenue at a point-in-time, upon completion of the performance obligation. The transaction price for each performance obligation for all our pressure pumping services are fixed per our contract with customer.
All Other— All other services consist of our surface drilling, drilling, coil tubing and flowback, which are downhole well stimulation and completion/remedial services. The performance obligation for each of the services has a fixed transaction price which is satisfied at a point-in-time upon completion of the service when control is transferred to the customer. Accordingly, we recognize revenue at a point-in-time, upon completion of the service and transfer of control to the customer.
Accounts Receivable — Accounts receivables are stated at the amount billed and billable to customers. Payment is typically due in full upon completion of the job for all of our services to customers. At December 31, 2018 and 2017 accrued revenue (unbilled receivable) included as part of our accounts receivable was $18.0 million and $24.8 million, respectively. At December 31, 2018, the transaction price allocated to the remaining performance obligation for our partially completed hydraulic fracturing operations was $43.9 million, which is expected to be completed and recognized in one month following the current period balance sheet date, in our pressure pumping reportable segment. At December 31, 2017 the transaction price allocated to the remaining performance obligation for our then partially completed hydraulic fracturing operations was $26.4 million, which was recorded as part of our pressure pumping segment revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018.
At December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, the allowance for doubtful accounts was $0.1 million, $0.4 million and $0.6 million, respectively. During the year, additional allowance for doubtful accounts was $0.1 million and the allowance no longer required was 0.4 million.
Inventories — Inventories, which consists only of raw materials, are stated at lower of average cost and net realizable value.
Property and Equipment — The Company’s property and equipment are recorded at cost, less accumulated depreciation.
Depreciation — Depreciation of property and equipment is provided on the straight‑line method over the following estimated useful lives:
Land
Indefinite
Buildings and property improvements
5 - 30 years
Vehicles
1 ‑ 5 years
Equipment
1 ‑ 20 years
Leasehold improvements
5 ‑ 20 years

Upon sale or retirement of property and equipment, the cost and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the balance sheet and the net amount, less proceeds from disposal, is recognized as a gain or loss in the statement of operations. The Company recorded a loss on disposal of assets of $59.2 million, $39.1 million and $22.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Impairment of Long‑Lived Assets — In accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 360, Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long‑Lived Assets, the Company reviews its long‑lived assets to be held and used whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying value of those assets may not be recoverable.
An impairment loss is indicated if the sum of the expected future undiscounted cash flows attributable to the asset group is less than the carrying amount of such asset group. In this circumstance, the Company recognizes an impairment loss for the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset group exceeds the fair value of the asset group. No impairment was recorded in the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017. The impairment recorded in 2016 was $6.3 million for property and equipment relating to the drilling asset group.
The Company accounts for long‑lived assets to be disposed of at the lower of their carrying amount or fair value, less cost to sell once management has committed to a plan to dispose of the assets.
Goodwill — Goodwill is the excess of the consideration transferred over the fair value of the tangible and identifiable intangible assets and liabilities recognized. Goodwill is not amortized. We perform an annual impairment test of goodwill as of December 31, or more frequently if circumstances indicate that impairment may exist. The determination of impairment is made by comparing the carrying amount of a reporting unit with its fair value, which is generally calculated using a combination of market and income approaches. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds the carrying value, no further testing is performed. If the fair value of the reporting unit is less than the carrying value, we consider goodwill to be impaired, and the amount of impairment loss is estimated and recorded in the statement of operations.
In 2014, we acquired Blackrock Drilling, Inc. (“Blackrock”) for $1.8 million. The assets acquired from Blackrock were recorded as $0.6 million of equipment with the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of the assets recorded as goodwill of $1.2 million. The acquisition complemented our existing drilling operations. The transaction has been accounted for using the acquisition method of accounting and, accordingly, assets and liabilities assumed were recorded at their fair values as of the acquisition date. Based on our goodwill impairment test as of December 31, 2016, the Company concluded that there was an impairment of goodwill of $1.2 million related to the Blackrock acquisition. Accordingly, a $1.2 million impairment expense was recorded during the year ended December 31, 2016, to fully write-down the goodwill related to Blackrock. Prior to the impairment write‑down, the goodwill related to the Blackrock acquisition of $1.2 million was recorded in our all other reportable segment.
In 2011, we acquired Technology Stimulation Services, LLC (“TSS”) for $24.4 million. The assets acquired from TSS were recorded as $15.0 million of equipment with the excess of the purchase price over fair value of the assets recorded as goodwill of $9.4 million. The acquisition complemented our existing pressure pumping business. The transaction has been accounted for using the acquisition method of accounting and, accordingly, assets and liabilities assumed were recorded at their fair values as of the acquisition date. Based on our goodwill impairment tests as of December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, we concluded that the goodwill related to TSS acquisition was not impaired. The goodwill related to the TSS acquisition of $9.4 million is recorded in our pressure pumping reportable segment.
Intangible Assets — Intangible assets with finite useful lives are amortized on a basis that reflects the pattern in which the economic benefits of the intangible assets are realized, which is generally on a straight‑line basis over the asset’s estimated useful life.
Income Taxes — Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method, which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the consolidated financial statements. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined on the basis of differences between the consolidated financial statements and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.
We recognize deferred tax assets to the extent that we believe these assets are more likely than not to be realized. In making such a determination, we consider all positive and negative evidences, including future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, projected future taxable income, and the results of recent operations. If we determine that we would be able to realize our deferred tax assets in the future in excess of their net recorded amount, we would make an adjustment to the deferred tax asset valuation allowance, which would reduce the provision for income taxes.
Advertising Expense — All advertising costs are expensed as incurred. For the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, advertising expense was $1.3 million, $0.8 million and $0.4 million, respectively.
Deferred Loan Costs — The Company capitalized certain costs in connection with obtaining its borrowings, including lender, legal, and accounting fees. These costs are being amortized over the term of the related loan using the straight‑line method. Deferred loan costs amortization is included in interest expense. Unamortized deferred loan costs associated with loans paid off or refinanced with different lenders are expensed in the period in which such an event occurs. Deferred loan costs are classified as a reduction of long‑term debt or in certain instance as an asset in the consolidated balance sheet. Amortization of deferred loan costs is recorded as interest expense in the statement of operations, and during the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, the amount of expense recorded was $0.4 million, $3.4 million and $2.1 million, respectively.
Stock-Based Compensation — The Company recognizes the cost of stock‑based awards on a straight‑line basis over the requisite service period of the award, which is usually the vesting period under the fair value method. Total compensation cost is measured on the grant date using fair value estimates.
Insurance Financing — The Company annually renews its commercial insurance policies and records a prepaid insurance asset and amortizes it monthly over the coverage period. The Company may choose to finance a portion of the premiums and will make repayments monthly over ten months in equal installments.
Concentration of Credit Risk — The Company’s assets that are potentially subject to concentrations of credit risk are cash and cash equivalents and trade accounts receivable. Cash balances are maintained in financial institutions, which at times exceed federally insured limits. The Company monitors the financial condition of the financial institutions in which accounts are maintained and has not experienced any losses in such accounts. The receivables of the Company are spread over a number of customers, a majority of which are credible operators and suppliers to the oil and natural gas industries. The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations as to the financial condition of its customers with respect to trade receivables.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards Adopted in 2018
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606). ASU No. 2014-09 requires entities to recognize revenue to depict transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. ASU No. 2014-09 requires entities to disclose both qualitative and quantitative information that enables users of the consolidated financial statements to understand the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers, including disclosure of significant judgments affecting the recognition of revenue. ASU No. 2014-09 was effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, using either the full retrospective or modified retrospective method. We adopted ASU No. 2014-09 effective January 1, 2018, using the modified retrospective method. The adoption of this guidance had no impact on our prior period results of operations. This is because prior to the effective date of the new revenue guidance, substantially all of our performance obligations per our contracts with customers, except for hydraulic fracturing, were completed at a point-in-time, and revenue recognized when control was transferred to the customers, which is consistent with ASU No. 2014-09. Our hydraulic fracturing segment performance obligation is satisfied over time. Prior to the effective date of the new revenue standards, our hydraulic fracturing segment revenue was recognized based on actual stages completed, i.e. using the output method, which faithfully depicts how our services are transferred over time to our customers and is consistent with the requirements of the new guidance, ASU No. 2014-09. Accordingly, no adjustments to our consolidated financial statements were required, other than the additional disclosures included as part of Note 2 in our consolidated financial statements.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards Not Yet Adopted in 2018
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases. This ASU introduces a lessee model that brings most leases on the balance sheet. This new standard increases transparency and comparability by recognizing a lessee’s rights and obligations resulting from leases by recording them on the balance sheet as Right of Use ("ROU") Assets and Lease Liabilities. Leases will be classified as either finance or operating, which will impact the pattern of expense recognition on the income statement. This ASU also requires additional qualitative and quantitative disclosures to better enable users of financial statements to assess the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. This ASU is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted. We adopted this new lease standard effective January 1, 2019 and intend to elect the modified retrospective transition method. As such, the comparative financial information will not be restated and will continue to be reported under the lease standard in effect during those periods. We also intend to elect other practical expedients provided by the new standard, including the package of practical expedients, the short-term lease recognition practical expedient in which leases with a term of 12 months or less will not be recognized on the balance sheet, and the practical expedient to not separate lease and non-lease components for the majority of our leases. We believe that the adoption of this standard will result in an amount no greater than $10.0 million of additional assets and liabilities on our consolidated balance sheet representing the recognition of operating lease right-of-use assets and operating lease liabilities.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment, which removes the requirement to compare the implied fair value of goodwill with its carrying amount as part of step two of the goodwill impairment test. As a result, under this ASU, an entity would recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit's fair value. Although, the loss recognized should not exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. This ASU is effective for impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, on a prospective basis. Early adoption is permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017. We believe that the adoption of this guidance will not materially affect our consolidated financial statements.