FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Fair Value Disclosures [Abstract]|
|FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS||
FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS
Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability (i.e., the “exit price”) in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.
In determining fair value, the Company uses various valuation approaches and establishes a hierarchy for inputs used in measuring fair value that maximizes the use of relevant observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs by requiring that the most observable inputs be used, when available. Observable inputs are inputs that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability developed based on market data obtained from sources independent of the Company. Unobservable inputs are inputs that reflect the Company’s assumptions about the assumptions other market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability developed based on the best information available in the circumstances. The hierarchy is broken down into three levels based on the observability of inputs as follows:
Level 1 — Valuations based on quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Company has the ability to access. Valuation adjustments and block discounts are not applied to Level 1 instruments. Since valuations are based on quoted prices that are readily and regularly available in an active market, valuation of these instruments does not entail a significant degree of judgment.
Level 2 — Valuations based on one or more quoted prices in markets that are not active or for which all significant inputs are observable, either directly or indirectly.
Level 3 — Valuations based on inputs that are unobservable and significant to the overall fair value measurement.
A financial instrument’s categorization within the valuation hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The Company’s assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement in its entirety requires judgment and considers factors specific to the asset or liability.
Assets and Liabilities Measured at Fair Value on a Recurring Basis
Our financial instruments include cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable and accounts payable, accrued liabilities and long-term debt. The estimated fair value of our financial instruments — cash and cash equivalent, accounts receivable and accounts payable and accrued liabilities at December 31, 2018 and 2017 approximates their carrying value as reflected in our consolidated balance sheets because of their short‑term nature. In 2018, we did not have a derivate financial instrument. Prior to 2018, we used a derivative financial instrument, an interest rate swap, to manage interest rate risk. Our policies do not permit the use of derivative financial instruments for speculative purposes. We did not designate the interest rate swap as a hedge for accounting purposes. We record all derivatives as of the end of our reporting period in our consolidated balance sheet at fair value, which is based on quoted market prices, which represents a level 1 in the fair value measurement hierarchy. Based on quoted market prices as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, for contracts with similar terms and maturity date, as provided by the counterparty, we recorded a gain of $0.3 million and $0.2 million, respectively, in our consolidated statement of operations. The fair value of the interest rate swap liability at December 31, 2017 and 2016 was $0 and $0.3 million, respectively.
Assets Measured at Fair Value on a Nonrecurring Basis
No assets were measured at fair value on a nonrecurring basis at December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
No impairment was recorded for our property and equipment during the year ended December 31, 2018 and 2017. In 2016, the depressed cash flows and continued decline in utilization of our drilling assets were indicative of potential impairment, resulting in the Company comparing the carrying value of the drilling assets with its estimated fair value. We determined that the carrying value of the drilling assets was greater than its estimated fair value and accordingly, an impairment expense was recorded. In 2016, the non‑cash asset impairment charges for drilling was $6.3 million, which had a net carrying value of $15.0 million prior to the impairment write‑down. See Note 7, “Impairment of Long‑Lived Assets.”
We generally apply fair value techniques to our reporting units on a nonrecurring basis associated with valuing potential impairment loss related to goodwill. Our estimate of the reporting unit fair value is based on a combination of income and market approaches, Level 1 and 3, respectively, in the fair value hierarchy. The income approach involves the use of a discounted cash flow method, with the cash flow projections discounted at an appropriate discount rate. The market approach involves the use of comparable public companies market multiples in estimating the fair value. Significant assumptions include projected revenue growth, capital expenditures, utilization, gross margins, discount rates, terminal growth rates, and weight allocation between income and market approaches. If the reporting unit's carrying amount exceeds its fair value, we consider goodwill impaired, and the impairment loss is recorded in the period. There were no additions to, or disposal of, goodwill during the year ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016. Based on our annual goodwill impairment test, no impairment of goodwill was recorded for the year ended December 31, 2018 and 2017. At December 31, 2016, we estimated the fair value of our surface air drilling reporting unit to be $3.8 million and its carrying value was $4.2 million. As a result of the potential impairment with the carrying value exceeding the estimated fair value, we then further determined the implied fair value of the surface drilling goodwill to be $0. Accordingly, we recorded an impairment expense of $1.2 million. The impairment expense was attributable to the challenging oil and gas market and slow recovery of crude oil prices, all of which adversely impacted on our expected future cash flows for the surface air drilling reporting unit.
The entire disclosure for the fair value of financial instruments (as defined), including financial assets and financial liabilities (collectively, as defined), and the measurements of those instruments as well as disclosures related to the fair value of non-financial assets and liabilities. Such disclosures about the financial instruments, assets, and liabilities would include: (1) the fair value of the required items together with their carrying amounts (as appropriate); (2) for items for which it is not practicable to estimate fair value, disclosure would include: (a) information pertinent to estimating fair value (including, carrying amount, effective interest rate, and maturity, and (b) the reasons why it is not practicable to estimate fair value; (3) significant concentrations of credit risk including: (a) information about the activity, region, or economic characteristics identifying a concentration, (b) the maximum amount of loss the entity is exposed to based on the gross fair value of the related item, (c) policy for requiring collateral or other security and information as to accessing such collateral or security, and (d) the nature and brief description of such collateral or security; (4) quantitative information about market risks and how such risks are managed; (5) for items measured on both a recurring and nonrecurring basis information regarding the inputs used to develop the fair value measurement; and (6) for items presented in the financial statement for which fair value measurement is elected: (a) information necessary to understand the reasons for the election, (b) discussion of the effect of fair value changes on earnings, (c) a description of [similar groups] items for which the election is made and the relation thereof to the balance sheet, the aggregate carrying value of items included in the balance sheet that are not eligible for the election; (7) all other required (as defined) and desired information.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef