Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Fair Value Measurement

Fair Value Measurement
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2020
Fair Value Disclosures [Abstract]  
Fair Value Measurements Fair Value Measurement
           Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability (i.e., the "exit price") in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.
          In determining fair value, the Company uses various valuation approaches and establishes a hierarchy for inputs used in measuring fair value that maximizes the use of relevant observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs by requiring that the most observable inputs be used, when available. Observable inputs are inputs that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability developed based on market data obtained from sources independent of the Company. Unobservable inputs are inputs that reflect the Company's assumptions about the assumptions other market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability developed based on the best information available in the circumstances. The hierarchy is broken down into three levels based on the observability of inputs as follows:
          Level 1 — Valuations based on quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Company has the ability to access. Valuation adjustments and block discounts are not applied to Level 1 instruments. Since valuations are based on quoted prices that are readily and regularly available in an active market, valuation of these instruments does not entail a significant degree of judgment.
          Level 2 — Valuations based on one or more quoted prices in markets that are not active or for which all significant inputs are observable, either directly or indirectly.
          Level 3 — Valuations based on inputs that are unobservable and significant to the overall fair value measurement.
          A financial instrument's categorization within the valuation hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The Company's assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement in its entirety requires judgment and considers factors specific to the asset or liability.
Assets and Liabilities Measured at Fair Value on a Recurring Basis
          Our financial instruments include cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable, accrued and other current liabilities, and long-term debt. The estimated fair value of our financial instruments at September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019 approximated or equaled their carrying values as reflected in our condensed consolidated balance sheets.
Assets Measured at Fair Value on a Nonrecurring Basis
          Assets measured at fair value on a nonrecurring basis at September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively, are set forth below:
($ in thousands)

Estimated fair value measurements
Balance Quoted prices in active market
(Level 1)
Significant other observable inputs (Level 2) Significant other unobservable inputs (Level 3) Total gains
September 30, 2020:
Property and equipment, net $ —  $ —  $ —  $ —  $ — 
Goodwill $ —  $ —  $ —  $ —  $ — 
December 31, 2019:
Property and equipment, net $ 2,000  $ —  $ 2,000  $ —  $ (3,405)
Goodwill $ —  $ —  $ —  $ —  $ — 
          In the first quarter of 2020, the negative future near-term outlook resulting from the continued idling of our Permian drilling assets and current market prices were indicative of potential impairment, resulting in the Company comparing the
carrying value of the Permian drilling assets with its estimated fair value. In the first quarter of 2020, we determined that the carrying value of the Permian drilling assets was greater than its estimated fair value, accordingly impairment expense of $1.1 million was recorded for our Permian drilling assets during the nine months ended September 30, 2020.
          In 2019, the Company entered an agreement with its equipment manufacturer granting the Company the option to purchase additional 108,000 hydraulic horsepower (“HHP”) of DuraStim® equipment, with the purchase option expiring at different times through July 31, 2022, as amended. The option fee of $6.1 million, classified as a deposit for property and equipment as part of our pressure pumping reportable segment, has been fully impaired and written off in the first quarter of 2020 because it was not probable that the Company will exercise the option to purchase the equipment given the current depressed crude oil prices and other market conditions that have resulted in a decline in the demand for our hydraulic fracturing services.
          The total non-cash property and equipment impairment charges recorded during the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019 in our hydraulic fracturing and drilling segments was $7.2 million and $0, respectively.
          We generally apply fair value techniques to our reporting units on a nonrecurring basis associated with valuing potential impairment loss related to goodwill. Our estimate of the reporting unit fair value is based on a combination of income and market approaches, Level 1 and 3, respectively, in the fair value hierarchy. The income approach involves the use of a discounted cash flow method, with the cash flow projections discounted at an appropriate discount rate. The market approach involves the use of comparable public companies' market multiples in estimating the fair value. Significant assumptions include projected revenue growth, capital expenditures, utilization, gross margins, discount rates, terminal growth rates, and weight allocation between income and market approaches. If the reporting unit's carrying amount exceeds its fair value, we consider goodwill impaired, and the impairment loss is calculated and recorded in the period. There were no additions to, or disposal of, goodwill during the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019. In the first quarter of 2020, the depressed crude oil prices and crude oil storage challenges faced in the U.S. oil and gas industry triggered the Company to perform an interim goodwill impairment test, and as a result, we compared the carrying value of the goodwill in our hydraulic fracturing reporting unit with the estimated fair value. Our impairment test also considered other relevant factors, including market capitalization and market participants' view of the oil and gas industry in reaching our conclusion that that carrying value of our goodwill in our pressure pumping reportable segment of $9.4 million was fully impaired during the first quarter of 2020. Accordingly, we have recorded a goodwill impairment expense of $9.4 million during the nine months ended September 30, 2020. There was no goodwill impairment expense during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019.